Thursday, October 31, 2019
Education As The Cornerstone Of Success Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 8
Education As The Cornerstone Of Success - Essay Example Many opportunities come because of acquiring education. From the basic standards of formal education, it ensures that individuals acquire life skills from the starting point. A person develops knowing the basic requirements of him from society. It is interesting to note that the definition of success in life depends on what the society believes in. Therefore, by learning what society requires exposes people to the path of fulfilling their destiny resulting in success. The curriculum then provides all the skills available to the individual as it awaits him to develop an interest in his own areas. By providing all the skills, education gives the individual an opportunity to choose what he is interested in partaking. The curriculum defines each an every skill and puts measures to see them grow into success. By so doing, it helps to shape the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ interests without influencing them into taking something else. Its basic role is to shape their interests and nurture them. Education plays a role in enlightening people. As noted earlier, education involves the acquisition of knowledge and skills. This knowledge improves the mode in which the brain works. The brain receives a lot of information, after which it sorts and arranges them in a way that an individual is conversant with many things that occur daily. This knowledge broadens the way of thought and arguments. An argument entails a manner in which a person is capable of reasoning with the issues and being able to separate facts from mere propaganda. It is only because of acquired knowledge that someone is able to reason out consciously. In addition to this, a person with an average education is able to think in a higher level as compared to another average uneducated person.
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Proposal (Subject-Mental Health and Criminal Justice) - Research Paper Example Here, we develop a proposal on behalf of a community mental health support group. This proposal is developed using empirical evidence from previous methods. Issues of public safety and ethics are paramount. As such, we analyze the process of law enforcement as applied to the mentally ill, and in so doing, we delineate strengths and weaknesses of traditional methods of dealing with these problems. Our population of interest is those who have not responded well to conventional clinical-legal methods. These are the people who have been traditionally called lost causes or incorrigibles. Our proposal builds upon previously successful models as a consolidated inter-disciplinary method. Briefly, our proposal is one of laissez faire. Forced participation in mental health and substance abuse programs are most often not appropriate especially for people who have the ability to independently improve their own lives (Chandler et. al., 2004). Ultimately, it is a profoundly human endeavor to help others live down their own shortcomings. This is a certainty upon which any method should operate. Although their presence is becoming much more significant, offenders with mental illnesses are still some of the most disenfranchised groups in society. Here, we propose improved methods of dealing with this population in a criminal justice setting. As such, we present the background and rationale for our proposal as well as its details and predicted outcomes. As we explore relevant information with respect to mental health and criminal justice, we are faced with certain questions. Do we include alcohol and drug abuse as a mental illness? How much is the system itself responsible for aggravating mental illnesses in the population? Does punishment (particularly confinement and isolation) make matters worse or maybe even create a lasting state
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Nonmaleficence Pillars Of Health System Abstract: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence are the main Ã¢â¬Å"pillarsÃ¢â¬ of the health care system. These two ethical principles seem to be the foundation and set a basic framework for the practice of health care. Hippocrates recognized the significance of these two principles and he pledged to practice healthcare following them (Morrison 48). The function of these two principles go beyond treatment of patients, in fact, it is relevant when dealing with the healthcare staff. As a health care administrator it is vital to create a working environment that runs by the two ethical principles as well as the ethical principle of justice. Justice comes into play because it is a healthcare administrators responsibility and obligation to make sure that each individual staff members is being treated fairly and equally. Thus, ethical issues that are raised in the workplace, specifically, in a health care facility, more often are associated with the principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justic e. A health care administrator is expected to follow all ethical guidelines in the practice of health care. The principle of nonmaleficence is to prevent harm from occurring or the Ã¢â¬Å"duty to avoid harming othersÃ¢â¬ (Morrison 48). This is associated with the treatment of patients which should be done with care and not carelessly. Additionally, the patients autonomy should not be violated under any circumstance in order to prevent potential harm from taking place. In the Ã¢â¬Å"U.S. Hostile Workplace SurveyÃ¢â¬ that was taken in the year 2000 showed that about one out of six workers in a workplace experience some type of bullying that occurred within the last six months (ahanews.com). This shows that some health care administrators are not fully looking after their healthcare facilities and this is allowing bullying to take place. In this case, the healthcare administrator is not doing his/her job in preventing harm, and is therefore not following the ethical principle of nonm aleficence. Furthermore, nonmaleficence goes beyond merely preventing physical harm that might take place during a treatment procedure such as surgery, but it also refers to preventing any harm from occurring to the staff and healthcare facility. The benefits and harms are most often weighed against each other in health care to guide what needs to be done. It is a responsibility of the health care administrator to construct an environment that is not harmful for the employees or staff members. In addition to preventing harm to patients, you must prevent any harm from occurring to the staff as well. The issues of discrimination, bullying and harassment, including sexual harassment in the working environment must be fully and openly addressed. These topics should be taken in as being intolerable and potential harm should be prevented to the employees in risk of these. Moreover, any type of bullying that may occur in the work force should be prevented. Bullying in the workforce is extremely prevalent and this most commonly leads to depression and lowered morale of the individual staff member being bullied. There should be a positive environment in the work area for open discussion and no fear of judgment in the case of telling the HCA about the bullying. There should be an ease to talk to the HCA, and he/she should create an open relation ship with the staff so there is strict guidelines needed to be followed, but an openness to speak about issues of bullying, discrimination, or harassment. There should be a procedure to report someone who is harassed and they should not feel fear of reprisal for mentioning the issue. The supervisor should not be so strict or too lenient because the staff could be scared or too comfortable with him/her. In order to be fair and equal and prevent any harm by being too strict or too lenient, the principles of justice and nonmaleficence need to be followed. Bullying can include Ã¢â¬Å"intimidating and disruptive behaviorsÃ¢â¬ which can cause significant issues for a staff member who is experiencing lowered morale. The staff member being bullied could have trouble caring for the patient as effectively, thus can cause Ã¢â¬Å"poor patient satisfactionÃ¢â¬ . Patient care in a healthcare facility is reliant on Ã¢â¬Å"teamwork, communication, and a collaborative work environment.Ã¢â¬ It is important to provide a safe environment and to do so a health care professional who is experiencing bullying or seeing it occur should report it or address the issue. Addressing the issue is very crucial to the success of performance and patient care. The joint effort is needed in health care organizations and a mere act of bullying can affect the entire healthcare facility by lowering the morale and lowering the teamwork and interaction. This is obviously causing harm and the principle of nonmaleficence is not coming into play when bullying has occ urred. Therefore, the health care administrator should adopt a code of conduct in order to follow guidelines and ensure that the staff members are clear what is bullying. Additionally, it is essential Ã¢â¬Å"to create and implement a process for managing disruptive and inappropriate behaviorsÃ¢â¬ in the workplace (newworkplace.wordpress.com). This will ensure that every staff member is being treated fairly and the principle of justice is being followed. More commonly it has been seen that bosses are one of the main sources of bullying. Physicians oftentimes feel that they might know better or more than nurses and treat them unfairly which is going against the principle of nonmaleficence because they are directly causing harm instead of preventing harm. It was seen in one situation that a physician refused to allow his staff member to go to the bathroom which was insulting as well as inappropriate bullying. The Ã¢â¬Å"National Accrediting AgencyÃ¢â¬ now requires of some hospitals to adopt a code of conduct which addresses issues of bullying. Ã¢â¬Å"Intimidating behaviorÃ¢â¬ or bullying can cause staff members to become submissive because of the bullying has cause psychological harm to the individual and this oftentimes leads to medical errors and errors in patient care (workplacebullying.org). A health care administrator has the responsibility of being observant of what is going on in the working environment around him/her and to recognize any social isolation issues, belittling, and overload of work on one particular employee. Segregation and isolation oftentimes occurs due to bullying, however, sometimes it refers to cultural differences. It was seen that the staff members at a particular hospital were critical of the other Latino or Spanish-speaking employees and this caused a rift. There was obvious Ã¢â¬Å"prejudiceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"stereotypingÃ¢â¬ because the staff did not communicate with the Latino staff members as much, which caused language discrimination (gradworks.umi.com). This discrimination caused isolation of one particular group and it could and should have been spotted easily by the HCA whose responsibility it is to recognize instances of discrimination and isolation. This situation is also associated with racial discrimination which means that a grou p is isolated due to their ethnicity. It is thus the HCAs responsibility to prevent harm and act on the principle of nonmaleficence; he/she should also ensure that the ethical principle of justice is being practiced by the staff members and everyone is treated fairly and equally. By fixing the problem and causing the staff members to accept each other the health care administrator would be bringing about good which is acting on the ethical principle of beneficence. Racial discrimination is very common when it comes to the workplace. Many have felt that they were refused a promotion because their ethnicity or race. Nurses, specifically Caucasian nurses, felt isolated and discriminated by nurses of different ethnicities. The other nurses who spoke a non-English language seem to exclude Caucasian nurses which cause segregation and is something that should be prevented in the work place (diversityof.net). The impact of this isolation can cause low team effort and cause patient care to be poor. National surveys have shown that many physicians that are of a Ã¢â¬Å"racial/ethnic minorityÃ¢â¬ often feel isolated and racially discriminated in the working environment. Racial discrimination among physicians in the workplace causes Ã¢â¬Å"lower rates of promotion and career satisfaction when compared with nonminority physician peers with similar productivityÃ¢â¬ (nmanet.org). Ultimately, this has caused a poor working environment and discrimination c auses harm to the staff members as well as the health care organization. In addition to preventing harm, a health care provider must also do good for the patients, which is the principle of beneficence. Beneficence refers to the obligation a HCA has to his/her patients in providing fair treatment that will benefit them, protecting patients autonomous rights and providing aid for anyone in need. It is also an obligation of a health care administrator to bring about good in the workplace and make sure it is a safe working environment for his staff. There should be an appreciation which comes with this principle and should be displayed to the staff members in order to encourage them to always do better and continue to have a high morale. An HCA should balance the benefits and potential harms by deciding the costs against benefits and deciding what would provide the greatest good. The principle of beneficence should always be reinforced in order for the staff members to apply this ethical principle daily. Staff should be treated with beneficence in order for them to treat patients using this same principle. It is the responsibility of the administrator to be encouraging and compassionate towards the staff and to prevent negative attitudes which can lower the morale and cause potential harm. Also, an administrator should always offer assistance whereas being too authoritative would make the staff uneasy. Undoubtedly, the administrator should work on the weaknesses of the staff members and build upon their strengths in order for each individual to use their strengths for the good of the health care organization. Furthermore, downsizing in the workplace which include laying-off employees can affect the employees that are laid off as well as the staff members who are left feeling guilty and cannot work as efficiently due to this guilt. An HCA should not be keeping silent in a time when laying off is occurring because it can lead to rumors spreading around the workplace and a situation can become worse than it really is. Also, it can cause employees to be stressed and upset, which inevitably causes harm. After the lay-off has occurred, there should be open forums and discussion in order to be aware of everyones feelings towards the issue. The work place should be safe and healthy as well as have a positive atmosphere in order for there to be no fear of judgment which will prevent harm from happening such as harassment, bullying, or discrimination. The ethical issues raised in the workplace can range from bullying, discrimination, to harassment. These issues in the workplace cause harm to the staff members due to lowered morale and poor working efficiency. Discrimination can isolate and segregate groups of people or one person due to ethnicity, which would be racial discrimination or by other factors involved. This inevitably causes harm and not everyone is being treated fairly, thus the principle of nonmaleficence and justice are not being applied. Beneficence should be used when creating an environment that is safe and positive for the staff members to feel comfortable enough to report bullying, discrimination or harassment. Nonmaleficence, justice and beneficence are interconnected and work together in many situations for good ethical decision making. The relationship between the employee and administrator and the staff members themselves should be positive if using these three principles.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Computer Outsourcing Security Risk Inherent security risks of outsourcing -- what the CIO should know who were previously competitors are partnering in order that they may share risk, preserve capital, and gain market share from other competitors. It seems as though some companies soon will have outsourced so much of their business they will be in danger of becoming a business in name or brand only. While there can be many business benefits to outsourcing business functions and partnering with vendors and others in your business, the downside is always that it brings much added risk to your supporting systems, networks, and business critical applications. The more your network is extended and the more nodes or hosts are added-then all the more intrusion vectors (new and vulnerable risk points) become available for possible exploit and resultant harm to your company. As you connect your networks with various outsourcers, partners, vendors, alliances, and even consortiums you may, and probably will, connect with whom they do. The above connection scenario changes the established trust model from explicit and understood trust to one of transitive implicit trust. This is the "I may trust you but I do not necessarily trust who you trust" scenario. What can make the issue all the more complicated is that the company you outsource critical functions to may outsource some of its critical functions as well, and, you may not realize the potential impact to you until after long-term contracts are signed. Then it may be too late to amend contracts in order to protect your company from potential loss and liability. More connections to your network will bring more intrusion vectors or risks. These risk points must be tightly controlled and monitored at all times. Some companies may have hundreds of network connections, using a variety of communication methods, e.g. Internet, frame relay, leased line, microwave, wireless, satellite, fiber, ad nauseum. With so much variety in your connection types how will you know if a breach (successful or unsuccessful) in your network has o ccurred? How can you know what is happening in your partner's networks, or in the networks of those whom he is connected to? It may likely be through your friendly partner connections that you become open to intrusion, not from a more direct outside intrusion. Watch those trusted host relationships carefully. Are you ready to respond to a breach of your network? Usually, agreements are made and contracts are signed before a project team becomes involved in implementing a connection for a partner or an outsourcing contract.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
INPUT/OUTPUT ORGANIZATION Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accessing I/O Devices Ã¢â¬ ¢ I/O interface Ã¢â¬ ¢ Input/output mechanism Memory-mapped I/O y pp / Programmed I/O Interrupts Direct Memory Access Ã¢â¬ ¢ Buses Synchronous Bus Asynchronous Bus I/O in CO and O/S Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Programmed I/O Interrupts DMA (Direct memory Access) A bus is a shared communication link, which uses one , set of wires to connect multiple subsystems. The two major advantages of the bus organization are versatility and low cost. Accessing I/O Devices Most modern computers use single bus arrangement for connecting I/O devices to CPU & Memory Ã¢â¬ ¢ The bus enables all the devices connected to it to exchange information Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bus consists of 3 set of lines : Address, Data, Control Ã¢â¬ ¢ Processor places a particular address (unique for an I/O Dev. ) on address lines Ã¢â¬ ¢ Device which recognizes this address responds to the commands issued on the Control lines Ã¢â¬ ¢ Processor requests for either Read / Write Ã¢â¬ ¢ The data will be placed on Data lines Hardware to connect I/O devices to b t bus Interface Circuit Ã¢â¬â Address Decoder Ã¢â¬â Control Circuits Ã¢â¬â Data registers Ã¢â¬â Status registers Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Registers in I/O Interface Ã¢â¬â buffer and control Ã¢â¬ ¢ Flags in Status Registers like SIN, SOUT Registers, SIN Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data Registers, like Data-IN, Data-OUT I/O interface for an input device Memory Address Processor Data Control Address Add Decoders Control C t l circuits Data d t t D t and status registers I/O /O Interface Input device (s) p ( ) Input Output mechanism h i Ã¢â¬ ¢ Memory mapped I/O Ã¢â¬ ¢ Programmed I/O Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interrupts Ã¢â¬ ¢ DMA (Direct memory Access)A bus generally contains a set of control lines and a set of data lines. The control lines are used to signal requests and acknowledgments, and to indicate what type of information is on the data lines. The control lines are used to indicate what the bus contains and to implement the bus p rotocol. The data lines of the bus carry information between the source and the destination. This information may consist of data, complex commands, or addresses. Buses are traditionally classified as processor-memory di i ll l ifi d buses or I/O buses or special purposed buses (Graphics, etc. ).Processor memory buses are short, generally high speed, and matched to the memory system so as to maximize memoryprocessor bandwidth. I/O b buses, b contrast, can be lengthy, can have many by t t b l th h types of devices connected to them, and often have a wide range in the data bandwidth of the devices connected to them. I/O buses do not typically interface directly to the memory but use either a processor-memory or a backplane bus to connect to memory. The major disadvantage of a bus is that it creates a communication bottleneck possibly limiting the maximum I/O bottleneck, throughput.When I/O must pass through a single bus, the bus bandwidth of that bus limits the maximum I/O throughput. Reason why b R h bus d i design is so difficult : i diffi lt Ã¢â¬â the maximum bus speed is largely limited by physical factors: the length of the bus and the number of devices. These physical limits prevent us from running the bus arbitrarily fast. Ã¢â¬â In addition, the need to support a range of devices with widely varying latencies and data transfer rates also makes bus design challenging. Ã¢â¬â it becomes difficult to run many parallel wires at high speed due to clock skew and reflection reflection.The two basic schemes for communication on the bus are synchronous and asynchronous. If a bus is synchronous (e. g. Processor-memory), it includes a clock in the control lines and a fixed protocol for communicating that is relative to the clock. g This type of protocol can be implemented easily in a small finite state machine. Because the protocol is predetermined and involves little logic, the bus can run very fast and the interface logic will be small. Synchronous buses h ave two major disadvantages: Ã¢â¬â First, every device on the bus must run at the same clock rate. Second, because of clock skew problems, synchronous buses cannot be long if they are fast. An A asynchronous b h bus i not clocked. It can accommodate a is t l k d d t wide variety of devices, and the bus can be lengthened without worrying about clock skew or synchronization problems. To coordinate the transmission of data between sender and receiver, an asynchronous bus uses a handshaking protocol. Three special control lines required for hand-shaking: ReadReq: Used to indicate a read request for memory. The address is put on the data lines at the same time.DataRdy: Used t i di t th t th d t D t Rd U d to indicate that the data word is now ready on the di d th data lines; asserted by: Output/Memory and Input/I_O Device. Ack: Used to acknowledge the ReadReq or the DataRdy signal of the other party. I/O Dev. Memory Steps after the device signals a request by raising ReadReq and putti ng the address on the Data lines: 1. When memory sees the ReadReq line, it reads the address from the data bus and raises Ack to indicate it has been seen. 2. As the Ack line is high Ã¢â¬â I/O releases the ReadReq and data lines. g / q 3.Memory sees that ReadReq is low and drops the Ack line to acknowledge the ReadReq signal (Mem. Reading in progress now). 4. This step starts when the memory has the data ready. It places the data from the read request on the data lines and raises DataRdy. 5. The I/O device sees DataRdy, reads the data from the bus, and signals that it has the data by raising Ack. 6. On the Ack signal, M/M drops DataRdy, and releases the data lines. 7. Finally, the I/O device, seeing DataRdy go low, drops the Ack line, which indicates that the transmission is completed. Memory mapped I/O I/O devices and the memory share the same address space the space, arrangement is called Memory-mapped I/O. In Memory-mapped I/O portions of address space are assigned to I/O devi ces and reads and writes to those addresses are interpreted as commands to the I/O device. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"DATAINÃ¢â¬ is the address of the input buffer associated with the keyboard. Ã¢â¬â Move DATAIN, R0 reads the data from DATAIN and stores them into processor register R0; Ã¢â¬â Move R0, DATAOUT sends the contents of register R0 to location DATAOUT g Option of special I/O address space or incorporate as a part of memory address space (address bus is same always).When the processor places the address and data on the memory bus, the memory system ignores the operation because the address indicates a portion of the memory space used for I/O. The device controller, however, sees the operation, records the data, and transmits it to the device as a command. User programs are p p g prevented from issuing I/O g / operations directly because the OS does not provide access to the address space assigned to the I/O devices and thus the addresses are protected by the address translatio n. Memory mapped I/O can also be used to transmit data by writing or reading to select addresses.The device uses the address to determine the type of command, and the data may be provided by a write or obtained by a read. A program request usually requires several separate I/O operations. Furthermore, the processor may have to interrogate the status of the device between individual commands to determine whether the command completed successfully. DATAIN DATAOUT STATUS CONTROL 7 6 5 4 DIRQ KIRQ DEN KEN SOUT SIN 3 2 1 0 I/O operation involving keyboard and display devices Registers: DATAIN, DATAOUT, STATUS, CONTROL Flags: SIN, SOUT Ã¢â¬â Provides status information for keyboard nd display unit KIRQ, DIRQ Ã¢â¬â Keyboard, Display Interrupt request bits DEN, KEN Ã¢â¬âKeyboard, Display Enable bits Programmed I/O Ã¢â¬ ¢ CPU has direct control over I/O Ã¢â¬â S Sensing status i t t Ã¢â¬â Read/write commands Ã¢â¬â Transferring data Ã¢â¬ ¢ CPU waits for I/O module to comple te operation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wastes CPU time In this case, use dedicated I/O instructions in the processor. These I/O instructions can specify both the device number and the command word (or the location of the command word in memory). The processor communicates the device address via a set of wires normally included as part of the I/O bus.The actual command can be transmitted over the data lines in the bus. bus (example Ã¢â¬â Intel IA-32) IA-32). By making the I/O instructions illegal to execute when not in kernel or supervisor mode user programs can be mode, prevented from accessing the devices directly. The process of periodically checking status bits to see if it is time for the next I/O operation, is called polling. Polling is the simplest way for an I/O device to communicate with the processor processor. The I/O device simply puts the information in a Status register, register and the processor must come and get the information.The processor is totally in control and does all the w ork. A ISA program to read one line from the keyboard, store it in memory buffer and echo it back to the display buffer, The disadvantage of polling is that it can waste a lot of processor time because processors are so much faster than I/O devices devices. The processor may read the Status register many times, only to find that the device has not yet completed a comparatively slow I/O operation, or that the mouse has not budged since the last time it was polled.When the device completes an operation, we must still read the status to determine whether it (I/O) was successful. Overhead in a polling interface lead to the invention of interrupts to notify the processor when an I/O device requires attention from the processor. Interrupt-driven I/O, Interrupt driven I/O employs I/O interrupts to indicate to the processor that an I/O device needs attention. When a device wants to notify the processor that it has completed some operation or needs attention, it causes the processor to be in terrupted.Interrupts I/O INTERRUPT Processor Ã¢â¬ ¢ When I/O Device is ready, it sends the INTERRUPT signal to processor via a dedicated controller line Ã¢â¬ ¢ Using interrupt we are ideally eliminating WAIT period Ã¢â¬ ¢ In response to the interrupt, the processor executes the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) Ã¢â¬ ¢ All the registers flags program counter values are saved registers, flags, by the processor before running ISR Ã¢â¬ ¢ The time required to save status & restore contribute to execution overhead ? Ã¢â¬Å"Interrupt LatencyÃ¢â¬ p y nterrupt-acknowledge signal Ã¢â¬â I/O device interface p y accomplishes this by execution of an instruction in the interrupt-service routine (ISR) that accesses a status or data register in the device interface; implicitly informs the device that its interrupt request has been recognized. IRQ signal is then removed by device. ISR is a sub-routine Ã¢â¬â may belong to a different user than the one being executed and then halted. The c ondition code flags and the contents of any registers used by both the interrupted program and the interrupt-service interrupt service routine are saved and restored restored.The concept of interrupts is used in operating systems and i many control applications, where processing of d in l li i h i f certain routines must be accurately timed relative to external events (e. g. real-time processing). Interrupt Hardware p Pull up Pull-up resister INTR = INTR1 +Ã¢â¬ ¦.. +INTR n INTR An equivalent circuit for an open drain bus used to implement a open-drain common interrupt-request line Interrupt Hardware Supply pp y R INTR Processor Pull-up resister INTR 1 INTR 2 INTR 3 INTR = INTR1 +Ã¢â¬ ¦.. +INTR n GND INTR Enabling and Disabling Interrupts Device activates interrupt signal line and waits with this signal activated until processors attends Ã¢â¬ ¢ The interrupt signal line is active during execution of ISR and till the device caused interrupt is serviced Ã¢â¬ ¢ Necessary to ensure t hat the active signal does not lead to successive interruptions (level-triggered input) causing (level triggered the system to fall in infinite loop. Ã¢â¬ ¢ What if the same d i h h device i interrupts again, within an ISR ? i i hi Ã¢â¬ ¢ Three methods of Controlling Interrupts (single device) Ã¢â¬â Ignoring interrupt Ã¢â¬â Disabling interrupts Ã¢â¬â Special Interrupt request line Ignoring Interrupts Ã¢â¬â Processor hardware ignores the interrupt request line until the execution of the first instruction of the ISR completed Ã¢â¬â Using an interrupt disable instruction after the first instruction of the ISR Ã¢â¬â no further interrupts Ã¢â¬â A return from interrupt instruction is completed before further interruptions can occur Ã¢â¬ ¢ Disabling Interrupts Ã¢â¬â Processor automatically disables interrupts before starting the execution of the ISR Ã¢â¬â The processor saves the contents of PC and PS (status register) before performing interrupt disabling. The interrupt-enable is set to 0 Ã¢â¬â no further interrupts allowed Ã¢â¬â When return from interrupt instruction is executed the contents of the PS are restored from the stack, and the interrupt enable is set to 1 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Special Interrupt line p p Ã¢â¬â Special interrupt request line for which the interrupt handling circuit responds only t th l di h dli i it d l to the leading edge of d f the signal Ã¢â¬â Edge Ã¢â¬âtriggered g gg Ã¢â¬â Processor receives only one request regardless of how long the line is activated Ã¢â¬â N separate i t No t interrupt di bli t disabling i t instructions tiThe sequence of events involved in handling an interrupt request from a single device. Assuming that interrupts are enabled, the following is a typical scenario: 1. 1 The device raises an interrupt request request. 2. The processor interrupts the program currently being executed. t d 3. Interrupts are disabled by changing the control bits in the PS (except in the case of edge-tri ggered interrupts) interrupts). 4. The device is informed that its request has been recognized, and in response, it deactivates the interrupti d di d ti t th i t t request signal. . The action requested by the interrupt is performed by the interrupt-service routine. 6. Interrupts are enabled and execution of the interrupted program is resumed. Handling Multiple Devices Ã¢â¬ ¢ Multiple devices can initiate interrupts p p Ã¢â¬ ¢ They uses the common interrupt request line y p q Ã¢â¬ ¢ Techniques are q Ã¢â¬â Polling Ã¢â¬â Vectored Interrupts p Ã¢â¬â Interrupt Nesting Ã¢â¬â Daisy Chaining y g Polling Scheme Ã¢â¬ ¢ The IRQ (interrupt request) bit in the status register is set when a device is requesting an interrupt. The Interrupt service routine polls the I/O devices connected to the bus. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The first device encountered with the IRQ bit set is serviced and the subroutine is invoked. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Easy to implement, but too much time spent on checking the IRQ bits of all d evices, though some devices may not be requesting service. Vectored Interrupts Ã¢â¬ ¢ Device requesting an interrupt identifies itself directly to the processor Ã¢â¬ ¢ The device sends a special code to the processor over the bus. The code contains the Ã¢â¬â identification of the device device, Ã¢â¬â starting address for the ISR, Ã¢â¬â address of the branch to the ISR Ã¢â¬ ¢ PC finds the ISR address from the code. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To add flexibility for multiple devices Ã¢â¬â corresponding ISR is executed by the processor using a branch address to the appropriate routine Ã¢â¬â device specified Interrupt Vector. An interrupt vector is the memory address of an interrupt handler, or an index into an array called an interrupt vector table or dispatch table Ã¢â¬â a table of interrupt vectors (pointers to routines that handle interrupts).Interrupt vector tables contain the memory addresses of interrupt handlers. When an interrupt is generated, the processor saves its execution state via a context switch, and begins execution of the interrupt handler at the interrupt b i ti f th i t t h dl t th i t t vector. The Interrupt Descriptor Table ( p p (IDT) is specific to the ) p I386 architecture. It tells where the Interrupt Service Routines (ISR) are located. Each interrupt number is reserved for a specific purpose. For example, 16 of the vectors are reserved for the 16 IRQ lines.Q On PCs, the interrupt vector table (IVT or IDT) consists of 256 4-byte pointers Ã¢â¬â the first 32 (0-31 or 00-1F) of which are reserved f for processor exceptions; the rest f for hardware interrupts, software interrupts. This resides in the first 1 K of addressable memory. Interrupt Nesting Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pre-Emption of low priority Interrupt by another high Pre Emption priority interrupt is known as Interrupt nesting. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Di bli Disabling I t Interrupts d i t during th execution of th ISR the ti f the may not favor devices which need immediate attention. Need a priority of IRQ de vices and accepting IRQ from a high priority device. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The priority level of the processor can be changed y y dynamically. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The privileged instruction write in the PS (processor status word) that encodes the processors priority word), priority. Interrupt Nesting (contd. ) Pro ocessor INTR1 Device 1 INTA 1 Device 2 INTRp .. . Device p INTA p Priority arbitration circuit Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizing I/O devices in a prioritized structure. g g / p Ã¢â¬ ¢ Each of the interrupt-request lines is assigned a different priority level level. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The processor is interrupted only by a high priority device. Daisy Chaining Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ The interrupt request line INTR is common to all the devices The interrupt acknowledgement line INTA is connected to devices in a DAISY CHAIN way INTA propagates serially through the devices Device that is electrically closest to the processor gets high hi h priority i i Low priority device may have a danger of STARVATION INTR P Processo r r Device D i 1 INTA Device D i 2 .. Device n D i Daisy Chaining with Priority Group Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Combining Daisy chaining and Interrupt nesting to form p priority group yg p Each group has different priority levels and within each group devices are connected in daisy chain wayINTR1 Proc cessor Device 1 Device 1 INTA 1 INTR p . . . . Device D i 1 INTA p Priority arbitration circuit Device D i 1 Arrangement of priority groups Direct Memory Access (DMA) Ã¢â¬ ¢ For I/O transfer, Processor determines the status of I/O devices, by Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Polling Waiting for Interrupt signal Ã¢â¬ ¢ Considerable overhead is incurred in above I/O transfer processing Ã¢â¬ ¢ To transfer large blocks of data at high Speed, between EXTERNAL devices & Main Memory, DMA approach is often used Ã¢â¬ ¢ DMA controller allows data transfer directly between I/O device d i and d Memory, M with i h minimal i l intervention i i of f processor. Direct Memory Access (DMA) Ã¢â¬ ¢ DMA controller acts as a P rocessor, but it is controlled by CPU Ã¢â¬ ¢ To initiate transfer of a block of words, the processor sends the following data to controller Ã¢â¬â The starting address of the memory block Ã¢â¬â The word count h d Ã¢â¬â Control to specify the mode of transfer such as read or write Ã¢â¬â A control to start the DMA transfer Ã¢â¬ ¢ DMA controller performs the requested I/O operation and sends a interrupt to the processor upon completion 1 Status and Control Starting address Word count In ? ? ? IRQ 30 IE 1 R/W 0 Done DMA interface g g First register stores the starting address Second register stores Word count Third register contains status and control flags Bits and Flags R/W Done IRQ IE 1 READ Data transfer finishes Interrupt request Raise interrupt (enable) after Data Transfer 0 WRITE Processor Main memory Disk/DMA controller DMA controller Printer Keyboard Disk Disk Network Interface Use of DMA Controller in a computer system Memory accesses by the processor and DMA Cont roller are interwoven Ã¢â¬ ¢ DMA devices have higher priority then processor over BUS control Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cycle Stealing:- DMA Controller Ã¢â¬Å"stealsÃ¢â¬ memory cycles from processor, though processor originates most memory access. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Block or Burst mode:- The of data without interruption Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conflicts in DMA: Ã¢â¬â Processor and DMA, Ã¢â¬â Two DMA controllers, try to use the Bus at the same time to access the main memory DMA controller may given exclusive access to the main memory to transfer a blockDMA and Interrupt Breakpoints During D i an I t Instruction Cycle ti C l Bus Arbitration Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bus master: device that initiates data transfers on the bus. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The next device can take control of the bus after the current master relinquishes control Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bus Arbitration: process by which the next device to become master is selected Ã¢â¬ ¢ Centralized and Distributed Arbitration BBSY P Processor r BR BG1 DMA controller 1 BG2 DMA controller 2 A simple arrangemen t for bus arbitration using a daisy chain BR (bus request ) line Ã¢â¬â open drain line Ã¢â¬â the signal on this line is a logical OR of the bus request from all the g q DMA devices Ã¢â¬â BG (bus grant) line Ã¢â¬â processor activates this line indicating (acknowledging) to all the DMA devices (connected in daisy chain fashion) that the BUS may be used when its free free. Ã¢â¬â BBSY (bus busy) line Ã¢â¬â open collector line Ã¢â¬â the current bus master i di b indicates d i devices that i i currently using h it is l i the bus by signaling this line BBSY Processor BR BG1 DMA controller 1 BG2DMA controller 2 Sequence of signals during data transfer of bus mastership Ã¢â¬ ¢ Centralized Arbitration Ã¢â¬â Separate unit (bus arbitration circuitry) connected to the bus Ã¢â¬â Processor is normally the bus master, unless it grants bus mastership to DMA For the timing/control, in previous slide: DMA controller 2 requests and acquires bus mastership and later releases the bus. During its tenure as the bus master, it may perform one or more data transfer operations, depending on whether it is p , p g operating in the cycle stealing or block mode.After it releases the bus, the processor resumes bus mastership. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Distributed Arbitration Ã¢â¬â All devices waiting to use the bus has to carry out the arbitration process Ã¢â¬â no central arbiter Ã¢â¬â Each device on the bus is assigned with a identification number 4-bit Ã¢â¬â One or more devices request the bus by asserting q y g the start-arbitration signal and place their identification number on the four open collector lines Ã¢â¬â ARB0 through ARB3 are the four open collector lines Ã¢â¬â One among the four is selected using the code on the lines and one with the highest ID numberA distributed arbitration scheme Assume that two devices, A and B, having ID numbers 5 and 6, respectively, are requesting the use of the bus. Device A transmits the pattern 0101, and device B transmit s the pattern 0110. p The code seen by both devices is 0111. Each device compares the pattern on the arbitration lines to its own ID, starting from the most significant bit. If it detects a difference at any bit position, it disables its drivers at that bit position and for all lower-order bits. It does so by placing a 0 at the input of these drivers drivers.In the case of our example, device A detects a difference on line ARB I. Hence, it disables its drivers on diff li I H i di bl i d i lines ARB 1 and ARBO. This causes the pattern on the arbitration lines to change to 0110, which means that B has won the contention. Universal Serial Bus (USB) The USB supports two speeds of operation called lowoperation, low speed (1. 5 megabits/s) and full-speed (12 megabits/s). The Th most recent revision of the bus specification (USB i i f h b ifi i 2. 0) introduced a third speed of operation, called high-speed (480 megabits/s).The USB has been designed to meet several key objectives: -P Provid e a simple, low-cost, and easy to use interconnection id i l l t d t i t ti system that overcomes the difficulties due to the limited number of I/O ports available on a computer Ã¢â¬â Accommodate a wide range of data transfer characteristics for I/O devices, including telephone and Internet connections / , g p Ã¢â¬â Enhance user convenience through a Ã¢â¬ plug-and-playÃ¢â¬ mode of operation USB Bandwidths: A low-speed rate of 1. 5 Mbit/s (~183 kB/s) is defined by USB 1. 0.It is intended primarily to save cost in lowbandwidth human interface devices (HID) such as keyboards, ( ) y , mice, and joysticks. The full-speed rate of 12 Mbit/s (~1. 43 MB/s) is the full speed ( 1. 43 basic USB data rate defined by USB 1. 1. All USB hubs support full-bandwidth. A high-speed (USB 2. 0) rate of 480 Mbit/s (~57 MB/s) was introduced in 2001. All hi-speed devices are capable of falling back to full bandwidth operation if necessary; they are full-bandwidth backward compatible. Connectors a re identical. SuperSpeed ( d (USB 3. 0) rate produces upto 4800 Mbit/s ) d bi / (~572 MB/s or 5 Gbps)Each node of the tree has a device called a hub, which acts as an intermediate control point between the host and the I/0 devices devices. At the root of the tree, a root hub connects the entire tree to the host computer. The leaves of the tree are the I/0 p / devices being served. The tree structure enables many devices to be connected while using only simple point-topoint serial links. Each hub has a number of ports where devices may be connected, including other hubs. In normal operation, a hub g copies a message that it receives from its upstream connection to all its downstream ports.As A a result, a message sent b the host computer is lt t by th h t t i broadcast to all I/O devices, but only the addressed device will respond to that message. A message from an I/O device is sent only upstream towards the root of the tree and is not seen by other devices. Hence, th USB enables th h t t communicate with the I/O H the bl the host to i t ith th devices, but it does not enable these devices to communicate with each other. The USB operates strictly on the basis of polling. A device may send a message only in response to a poll message from the host host.Hence, upstream messages do not encounter conflicts or interfere with each other, as no two devices can send other messages at the same time. This restriction allows hubs to be simple, low-cost devices. USB protocol requires that a message transmitted on a highspeed link is always transmitted p y at high speed, even when the ultimate receiver is a low-speed device. device Hence, a message intended for device D is sent at high speed from the root hub to hub A, then A forwarded at low speed to device D. The latter transfer will take a long time, during which highl ti d i hi h hi h speed traffic to other nodes is allowed to continue.Each device on the USB, whether it is a hub or an I/O device, is assigned a 7-bit ad dress. This address is local to the USB tree and is not related in any way to the addresses used on the processor bus. A hub may have any number of devices or other hubs connected to it, and addresses are assigned arbitrarily. When a device is first connected to a hub, or when it is powered on, it has the address 0. The hardware of the hub to which this device is connected is capable of detecting that the device has been connected, and it records this f d hi fact as part of i own status i f f its information. Periodically, the host polls each hub to collect status information and learn about new devices that may have been added or disconnected. When the host is informed that a new device has been connected, connected it uses a sequence of commands to send a reset signal on the corresponding hub port, read information from the device about its capabilities, send configuration information to the device, and assign the device a unique USB address. O d i d i th d i i dd Once this thi se quence is completed the device begins normal operation and responds only to the new address. Read about USB protocols Isochronous traffic on USB and USB FRAME
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
In todays extremely competitory concern environment, there are a batch of companies that are viing with each other for concern and besides these companies have to be cognizant every now and so of a new market participant emerging with new thoughts, technological inventions and techniques that can hinder those bing market participant Ã¢â¬Ës concern aspirations. The key to success for concerns is to be able to place that competition and to react to it, be able to invariably develop, get and accommodate, i.e evolve harmonizing to the market demand. This has bought frontward the construct of corporate entrepreneurship. The civilization of corporate entrepreneurship has to come from within the direction of administrations. With the intense competition among concerns, the modern-day manner of direction has given to strategic leading. Corporate Entrepreneurship is the civilization of advanced thought from within people in the administration that ensures sustained growing of companies ( Ra y & A ; Ramachandran 1996 ) . The motivation for entrepreneurship comes from the impulse to heighten client satisfaction ( Ramachandran 2003 ) and besides plan better for the hereafter. The motivation for entrepreneurship can besides be a response to the altering market scenarios that concerns face, whether it is from competition from challengers or in the chase of new concern chances. This sort of entrepreneurship was foremost started at Continental AG by Dr Von Grunberg, who fostered the thought of advanced thought among all staff at Continental when he started as the Chairman of the executive board in 1991. This corporate invention bought frontward the thought of profitableness among each concern unit of Continental AG. The company moved from a scheme of enlargement by acquisition to a growing scheme by profitableness. For this sort of advanced thought ( corporate entrepreneurship ) companies need leaders who are able to anticipate alterations, predict and program for the hereafter. This is what is known as strategic leading. Strategic leaders have multiple accomplishments but most of import among them are the interpersonal, conceptual and proficient accomplishments. They are besides adept at pull offing alterations. Under Dr Von Grunberg Ã¢â¬Ës strategic leading, the company Ã¢â¬Å" put about implementing a re-orientation of the company Ã¢â¬Ës concern Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . He encouraged the thought of entrepreneurship among all concern units of Continental AG and urged the company to Ã¢â¬Å" endeavor for the prima place in engineering Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) as his sharp vision envisaged the spread and chance for the future technological market. He felt that the Sur market was saturated and Continental could hold non survived merely by being a Sur provider entirely. He put frontward a program for future merchandise and procedure inventions towards being a systems supplier by re-structuring the Research and Development division ( R & A ; D ) at Continental AG, it started to demo consequences, Continental AG moved in front from its dark yearss at the beginning of the 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës and re-invented itself in the market. Corporate scheme must be in the custodies of strong leaders in the company and their strategic thought drives a company frontward. Strategic leading is non merely concerned with giving way to present schemes but besides future schemes for the company and programs in topographic point for those schemes. Strategic leading besides motivates employees by giving them the right way in front and fixing them better for the hereafter. 1b ) The 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës saw a serious recession in Europe and the universe tyre industry was besides hit by this recession. Vehicle enrollment declined and the market shrunk. Continental was faced with bead in net incomes, units running on losingss and the coup d'etat command of Pirelli. This prompted a strategic alteration in its external and internal policies. Before looking into Continental Ã¢â¬Ës strategic alteration, the factors responsible for those strategic alterations in Continental Ã¢â¬Ës policy demand to be looked at and is discussed in the nest paragraph. In malice of the hard times talked about in the earlier paragraph, Continental pursued growing scheme and as a consequence suffered immense losingss ( 65 million euro in 1991 ) ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Pirelli, a rival of Continental at that clip wanted to try a coup d'etat of Continental which was non successful and at the terminal it was settled with Pirelli controlled block of portions being transferred to a bank pool and the going of Executive board president Horst W. Urban on May 10, 1991. Continental was besides confronting troubles incorporating the companies/tire trade names like Uniroyal, Semperit, General Tire etc acquired as portion of its growing scheme. Ã¢â¬Å" There were besides hapless net incomes in a figure of corporate divisions Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p740 ) . The company construction of Continental was bureaucratic and centralistic ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . The corporate construction was managing Ã¢â¬Å" functional duties Ã¢â¬ alternatively of being market and client oriented. Most of the direction were involved largely in transporting out administrative responsibilities and lacked entrepreneurial skills/energy and strategic leading and that besides came down to the employees. To prolong in the extremely competitory market, Continental needed strategic alteration and those strategic alterations implemented by Continental are discussed in the following paragraph. More importance to profitableness and invention Continental shifted its focal point from being growing by acquisitions to more on stabilising the company Ã¢â¬Ës profitableness and invention and no farther acquisitions. The inventions, Continental stressed would be achieved by the company through its ain entrepreneurial forces ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Dr Von Grunberg presented a 10 point plan which was designed to put more accent on company directors holding a clear net income orientation and besides be a leader in inventions and engineering. Restructuring the functional orientation in the tyre country Functional restructuring for the tyre country in 1992 saw the old Ã¢â¬Å" board countries of Ã¢â¬ËTire production Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬ËMarketing/Sales Ã¢â¬Ë responsible for auto and truck tyres Ã¢â¬ being dissolved and replaced by merchandise driven Ã¢â¬Å" board degree divisions of Ã¢â¬ËPassenger Tires Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬ËCommercial Vehicle Tires/Environment/Research Ã¢â¬Ë . Net income orientation of service maps The demand for profitableness besides applied to serve maps like Information engineering. Continental AG outsourced its IT functions to another company which was jointly run by IBM and Continental. Marketing administration of auto tyre division Continental AG acquired a figure of trade names in the 1980 Ã¢â¬Ës like Uniroyal, Semperit, General Tire, Viking etc. Their profitableness was looked after by a separate direction squad. One of the major jobs these trade names were confronting was that they were seemingly aiming the same clients and in fact seemed like each other Ã¢â¬Ës rivals. Continental AG realised that and adopted a stance of market orientation, a displacement from trade name orientation at the terminal of 1993. Managers were given much more authorization in their parts and they were made Ã¢â¬Å" accountable for the consequences Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . They were besides given clip and infinite in covering with clients and understanding their demands. Cardinal coordination of decentral activities Even though decentralization of the assorted units/activities were pursued, cardinal functional countries like control, finance, engineering, buying Ã¢â¬Å" were retained as cardinal units Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Dr new wave Grunberg Ã¢â¬Å" continued to exercise direct influence Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) peculiarly in affairs of investing.2a ) How Continental fostered strategic invention ( use Porter Ã¢â¬Ës value concatenation understanding )Any company who is looking to last in the long tally in the market must be able to rethink and reinvent its planning procedure in order to keep sustainable competitory advantage in the market. Whether it be through distributing the civilization of corporate entrepreneurship among direction and staff, through advancing strategic leading or through furthering strategic inventions. Inventions are portion of nucleus competences of houses and are indispensable for competitory advantage ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . A careful analysis of Porter Ã¢â¬Ës value concatenation ( a utile tool to analyze a house Ã¢â¬Ës nucleus competences ) would uncover two really of import facts. The activities in which a house can prosecute competitory advantage can be either by making a superior cost advantage by which it offers the market and its clients a existent value for money or by distinguishing its constituents, merchandises and services from its rivals. Continental was faced with tough times at the beginning of the 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës with the economic recession and its failure to react to altering times by redesigning its schemes and policies. However with Dr. Von Grunberg as the president of the executive board it identified the countries to turn to as respects to company schemes and focussed on furthering strategic invention civilization in the company with respects to core competences of distinguishing its constituents, merchandises and services from its rivals. Initial scheme of Continental after the assignment of Dr Von Grunberg in early 1991 ( as the Chairman of the Executive Board ) was to concentrate on the entrepreneurial strength and invention potency of its staff and directors. However that scheme changed with clip, Ã¢â¬Å" following the acquisition of Teves, ITT industries brake and chassis operations in 1998 Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) when Continental went Ã¢â¬Å" beyond its ain operations into the value ironss of providers Ã¢â¬ ( Kotler 2003 ) in chase of systems supplier position ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Through endeavoring for technological promotion Continental was looking to distinguish itself from its rivals and one facet which Dr Von Grunberg felt that the company could do a difference is in the promotion on the technological forepart. He urged for invention from single employees from every individual section of the company. The attempts bore fruit and resulted in a new tyre line, Eco-contact in 1992 and development of a one phase Sur edifice machine in 1994 ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Continental invested to a great extent in Research and Development ( R & A ; D ) even during the crisis ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) and focussed on merchandise and procedure inventions ( instance analyze 7 ) within the tyre industry. A new engineering Centre was built up in Hannover, Germany. Ã¢â¬Å" The R & A ; D resources from Semperit and Uniroyal were all brought together in Hannover Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p744 ) . Therefore more than 1000 applied scientists and technicians were working together in presenting Ã¢â¬Å" market orientated inventions for car/truck tyres and automotive systems Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p744 ) . There were besides Ã¢â¬Å" research-development-engineering ( RDE ) meetings Ã¢â¬ where the research workers were confronted Ã¢â¬Å" with the demands of directors from market and client units to further new concern thoughts Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Towards a systems provider for automotive industry Continental AG and its direction under the leading of Dr Von Grunberg in the 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës realised that providers of complete systems ( alternatively of tyres or constituents merely ) will play the dominant function in the automotive industry of the hereafter ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . The provider market of constituents and tyres was shriveling at that clip. It was at that clip that Continental realised that it could long longer remain as a direct provider of production of tyres merely. It needed to Ã¢â¬Å" integrate proficient human body constituents to organize complete systems to provide to the automotive industry Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p745 ) and the acquisition of Teves Ã¢â¬Å" to make a superior value bringing web Ã¢â¬ ( Kotler book, p71 ) Formation of a separate board country Automotive systems The board of Continental AG founded a separate board country in 1994 called the Ã¢â¬ËAutomotive Systems Ã¢â¬Ë headed by Albert Beller, a former director at ITT Industries who had extended experience in the human body concern ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . From production of 10000 tyres in 1994 in a affair of two old ages production increased to three million tyres ( 3 million ) . There were besides developments of series of advanced merchandise thoughts for the human body that came along during this clip, viz. TPMS, CECC, CASS, SWT merely to call a few ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . These developments of advanced merchandise thoughts formed the footing for future value add-on and growing2b ) Compare and contrast Corporate administration and corporate societal duty patterns at Continental AG and Goodyear tyreCorporate administration at Continental AGCorporate administration is the manner a corporate is governed, the set of regulations, policies and processes that dictate the manner a comp any is administered or run ( University of Sunderland Handbook 2004 ) . Continental AG follows certain corporate guidelines, administration and codification of behavior which make up the Corporate administration patterns at Continental AG in conformity with subdivision 161 of the German Stock Corporation Act ( AktG ) . The Continental AG Executive board is in duty for the direction of the company as a whole. The executive board is formed of members who portion the assorted duties. The caput of the executive board is the Chairman of the Executive board and is responsible for giving the company the way it needs, including concern policy and overall direction ( www.conti-online.com ) . The Supervisory board is responsible for naming the Executive board and besides supervises and advises the Executive board. The supervisory board is besides represented by a Chairman who along with the president of the executive board discusses the company Ã¢â¬Ës scheme and growing. The corporate administration patterns since 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës under the able stewardship of Dr Von Grunberg disintegrated the centralized construction of operation of Continental AG and made concern units and concern directors more accountable to the net incomes and losingss sing their units. This developed more transparence in operation at Co ntinental AG. The Corporate Guidelines of Continental AG was reflected in the new Continental policy, the BASICS, the Continental AG corporate guidelines. It has reflected the vision, overall focal point by value creative activity ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) , concentrate on stakeholders, merchandises and services, corporate spirit, values and self-image of the Corporation since 1989. Code of Conduct of Continental AG Continental AG introduced a Worldwide Code of Conduct in 1996 that describes the basic values and rules which are adhering for all Continental employees during their mundane work and when covering with co-workers, clients and other company stakeholders ( www.continental-corporation.com ) . This was to further a long term successful relation with company stakeholders and clients.Corporate Social Responsibility patterns at Continental AGContinental AG understands the fact that a company Ã¢â¬Ës success is non merely defined by its growing and profitableness but it besides defined by its societal duty, its lovingness for the society and the universe in general. Continental AG is committed towards sustained societal duty, called the Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) ( www.cont-online.com ) . Continental takes into history environmental and societal facets into history in planing its merchandises and makes certain that its merchandises guarantee safety and convenience in route traf fic ( www.continental-corporation.com ) . The company is committed towards handling its staff in a responsible mode, guaranting they are happy, in good wellness and can keep a balance between personal and professional life. The company besides offers farther making and preparation and development chances for its staff. Continental AG besides supports and promotes resource salvaging merchandises to do certain that the environment is looked after.Continental AG works with the wider societal community in back uping programmes and undertakings on instruction, public assistance and athleticss ( www.cont-online.com ) . Continental AG follows the model of International Global Reporting Initiative ( GRI ) guideline in pulling up its Corporate Social Responsibility Report.Goodyear Corporate administration patternsGoodyear has a corporate administration commission to supervise all corporate administration activities. The commission consist of three or more managers appointed by the Board of Directors ( www.goodyear.com/corporate ) . The commission listens to stockholders suggestions for board members and besides reappraisals and assesses the corporate administration guidelines to do recommendations to the Board. Goodyear Ã¢â¬Ës corporate administration patterns has led to innovative thought, merchandise optimisation and optimisation of client satisfaction and is apparent in its new policy of seven strategic drivers ( leading, concentrate on hard currency, low cost construction, leveraged distribution, constructing trade name strength, merchandise leading and advantage supply concatenation ) to better integrate and organize the concern activities so that they are more net income oriented, concentrate more on presenting client satisfaction, focal point on clients appeal on Goodyear Ã¢â¬Ës cardinal trade names and better co-ordination with the supply concatenation for streamlined telling procedure concentrating on client and low operating cost ( www.goodyear.com/corporate ) ..Corporate Social Responsibility patterns at GoodyearGoodyear tyre is committed towards the society at big and besides the environment. Goodyear realises that to be a universe participant it must pay same attending to the environment as it pays to success and net incomes. Goodyear follows all relevant environmental wellness and safety guidelines non merely in relation to its workers but besides maintaining in head the planetary society and community in the topographic point in which it operates. The committedness to zero waste landfill in 2006 all was implemented to extinguish all waste from landfills ( www. goodyear.com/corporate ) . Initiative was besides taken for the decrease in the the usage of dissolvers, advancing energy efficiency and commanding wastage of H2O. Goodyear undergoes legion plants all over the universe affecting immature kids, adult females, backward communities to aware them of the dangers in route traffic and the safety measures that will do this universe a better and healthier topographic point to populate in. Some of the enterprises are adult females with thrust, trial coin kits, Nelson Mandela Business alliance to back up the HIV/AIDS people in Africa, kid safety place programme. In decision the corporate societal duty patterns at Continental are more concentrated towards safety and good being of its employees and the society at big, while the corporate societal activities of Goodyear tyres are more focused on the wellness and safety policy and advancing safety to the society at big. 3a ) The construction at Continental AG was extremely centralized and bureaucratic before 1992. This sort of stiff construction made Continental AG concentrate more on functional duties and as a consequence distanced itself from the market and its clients. This sort of construction did non let the chance to look into the wellness of the single units in the company and as a consequence it was hard to happen out or track the beginnings and grounds behind losingss and besides to keep person accountable for the losingss. However the restructuring of the functional construction in 1992 saw the board countries of Ã¢â¬ËProduction Tires Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬ËMarketing Gross saless Ã¢â¬Ë existent in the functional construction in 1991 being dissolved into Ã¢â¬ËPassenger Tires Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬ËCommercial Vehicle Tires/Environment/Research Ã¢â¬Ë . Alternatively of giving separate duty to a selling team/department/unit, the new construction allowed both divisions to look into their produc tion and besides selling duties. The directors were responsible for reasonably much everything for their divisions and they were given far more freedom and liberty to show them and were responsible for the profit/losses. This fostered the civilization of invention and new thoughts non merely among directors, but besides the directors and the board encouraged entrepreneurial energy among staff. The concatenation of bid was much clearer ( organizational construction ) and this transparence made it possible to put targets/profit demands on top direction in those divisions. In 1996 Ã¢â¬Å" the organisational split up of the rider tyre division into the extremely profitable replacing concern unit and loss devising original equipment concern Ã¢â¬ made it possible to place the loss doing country from the net income devising country. The loss doing original equipment concern was brought back to gain doing under the leading of Dr. Kessel, who besides promoted the entrepreneurship among al l degrees of the company. But this organizational shingle up was of import as the company was able to work individually on that peculiar country and by 1997 it paid dividends. From 1992 onwards the direction at Continental AG felt that with the shrinkage of provider market in tyres and constituents, it could long longer remain as a direct provider of production of tyres merely, the automotive industry market was traveling more towards Ã¢â¬Å" providers of complete systems Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . It needed to Ã¢â¬Å" integrate proficient human body constituents to organize complete systems to provide to the automotive industry Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p745 ) and the acquisition of Teves Ã¢â¬Å" to make a superior value bringing web Ã¢â¬ ( Kotler book, p71 ) . The board of Continental AG founded a separate board country in 1994 called the Ã¢â¬ËAutomotive Systems Ã¢â¬Ë headed by Albert Beller, a former director at ITT Industries who had extended experience in the human body concern ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . The formation of a separate section Ã¢â¬ËContinental Automotive systems Ã¢â¬Ë in the corporate construction put greater acce nt on supply of complete systems and led to the development of advanced thoughts and entrepreneurial accomplishments for merchandises like TMPS, CECC, CASS, SWT etc. 3b ) Dr Stephen Kessel assumed the board chairmanship on June 1, 1999. He knew that it was a difficult occupation following in the footfalls of Dr. Von Grunberg, who was enormously successful in maneuvering Continental from its dip in the early 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës and turn it into a net income devising company with an entrepreneurial mentality ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . The major challenge for Dr. Kessel was keeping the corporate place of Continental and besides to keep the entrepreneurial energy among employees at Continental. He introduced a new policy known as BASICS which is creative activity of value that benefits all stakeholders with a clear vision and overall focal point ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Dr Kessel initiated a Ã¢â¬Å" company-wide balanced scorecard procedure for the intent of set uping certain guidelines within Continental Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p752 ) . In this he involved every individual section and devised a balanced scorecard for every individual concern uni t, which was to be reviewed yearly. Ã¢â¬Å" This provided a better handling of the corporate divisions utilizing fewer public presentation figures Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001 ) . Dr Kessel besides played a important function in procuring Continental AG Ã¢â¬Ës technological border on competition and taking place in footings of technological invention with the Ã¢â¬Å" freshly founded Strategic Technology unit join forcesing tyres, human body, brakes and proficient merchandises determining company Ã¢â¬Ës re-orientation to a systems provider Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p752 ) . He was besides instrumental in acquiring the Ã¢â¬Å" original equipment concern unit Ã¢â¬ back to gain doing with entrepreneurial activities and Ã¢â¬Å" acceptance of a strategic policy Ã¢â¬ of non clasping under the Ã¢â¬Å" automotive industry Ã¢â¬Ës pricing policy Ã¢â¬ ( Bruch and Vogel 2001, p753 ) .