Sunday, May 24, 2020

The role of religion in human ethicality - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1485 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/03/22 Category Religion Essay Level High school Topics: Faith Essay Did you like this example? In the eighteenth century America was obsessed with ethicality; people lived by the rules of religion. Although, who is to say what is ethical? It is another being who determines ethicality and it is only in accordance with their rules, you must conform to their standards of right and wrong, thus the question is â€Å" Whose ethical views are most important to follow? From the making of America religion has played the biggest role in human ethicality, with the Bible being our handbook. However, in a time of evolutionary discoveries such as Darwinism, Emily Dickinson questions the idea that conventional faith, such as Christianity, is the belief in ethicality or a truth. It is evident that Dickinson declines the customary religious ideas of truth, but this does not mean declined faith. By exploring Emily Dickinsons lifestyle and experiences through both her biography and her poetic works I aim to argue that it is not religion Dickinson doesnt conform to but societys standards of ethics through religion and she instead follows her own faith, in truth. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The role of religion in human ethicality" essay for you Create order Dickinson instructs the reader to, Tell all the Truth but tell it slant (1) because ?The Truth must dazzle gradually / Or every man be blind (7-8). She is stating that people have the ethical obligation to tell the truth, yet she warns her reader to tell it at an angle because the truth can be too much for peoples weak perceptions to cope with, and you must protect the people from the pure and blinding light of truth. Some may infer, the truth Dickinson speaks of, is the truth of reality or facts that reject the notion of faith, but perhaps she is really referring to personal truth that is idiosyncratic. She wants the reader to tell the truth but their own truth, as she does, she wants them not feel pressured to conform to the truth that is placed on them by society and religion. Emily Dickinsons audience and unique secluded lifestyle helped her find her truth and which played a major role in her writings. With never having the intentions of being published or the need for fame, as she suggests in, Im Nobody! Who are you? her writings are exclusively her own truth. She says, how dreary â€Å" to be â€Å" Somebody! / How public â€Å" like a Frog, here she is pointing out that anonymity is preferred over public recognition and privacy is a thing of luxury. Dickinson inherited Puritan traits of simplicity, practicality, and a discerning observation of the inner self, yet her communication with religion was much more distant than her God-fearing forefathers would have dreamt. Thanks to her familys wealth and understanding Dickinson was permitted to escape the pressures of society and the role most women were required to play at the time. Through this Dickinson was able to do the things she wanted to do, she never married or barred any children, and she never had to tailor her writings in order to succumb to the needs and wants of American society, allowing herself to pursue her truth. The Bedford Anthology of American Literature states, Dickinson resolutely refused to join or attend church, although perhaps she was more certain of God, her own God, than her forefathers where of theirs. Some keep the Sabbath going to Church / I keep it, staying at Home. While Dickinson doesnt attend church like the rest of her community she claims she still practices faith, her faith, at home. In the end of this work she announces, So instead of getting to Heaven, at last / Im going, all along. In many of her other works Dickinson bears doubt in religion, claims she does not understand the conventional God, or have faith in his ways, but with this line she conveys that she does not fear him. This belief grants Dickinson to be a rare individual, especially of her time, affording her inner freedom and self-truth. On the exterior Dickinson seems backwards, unsocial and almost awkward although she truly holds great power when she answers only to herself, and this confidence is preced ent in her works. Dickinson dwells in possibility, opening herself up to new interpretations, as each moment in time becomes a new subject of interest. Alongside this her writings can become contradictory, specifically when she writes using the theme of death. I Hear a Fly Buzz â€Å" When I Died, presents an idea of death in which there is no eternal resting place or afterlife. With Blue â€Å" uncertain stumbling Buzz She depicts herself lying with a fly buzzing around waiting to do his part in the cycle of life and enviably eat her rotting corps. Between the light â€Å" and me / And then the Windows failed â€Å" and then / I could not see to see, here Dickinson wraps up her feelings of death with the belief that the process of death leads to nothingness and the soul that is believed to be found in the eyes fails and dies with her. In comparison her poem, Because I Could Not Stop for Death, she represents death as a spiritual journey to eternity. The Carriage held but just ourselves / And Immortality, In lines five through thirteen she describes this journey and lists things the speaker passes by, We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain / We passed the Setting Sun. The speaker in the carriage transcends and goes to a space where time seems not to exist; its equitably continuous. In this poem death is not something to be feared but instead a relaxing ride. Unlike in I Hear a Fly Buzz â€Å" When I Died, this work romanticizes death and makes the reader feel at peace with death. While these two examples seem to contradict Dickinsons views of death this does not mean she isnt speaking her truth. Dickinson writes poems to capture a moment in her time of life. As people grow and experience new things their views alter to fit the new moment. This might make some feel uneasy, that Emily Dickinson doesnt exhibit ethos in her writings, but when in context to her overall theme of truth, she does indeed stay true to her truth, whatever that may be. In addition she brings to light the truth of the human thought. Our beliefs change; Dickinsons world, like many others, is confused and disrupted thus she is incapable to come to any certain conclusions and that is okay. Rather than be exclusively for faith or fact, Dickinson incorporates both faith and fact or religion and science into her truth. She doesnt dismiss religion entirely because she is aware of the importance of faith. Instead, she finds a balance of the two, like we observe in her short four lined poem which reads, Faith is a fine invention / For Gentlemen who see! / But Microscopes are prudent / In an Emergency! Dickinson, at first, seems to be mocking the Church because she claims God could not really help someone in a true emergency. Faith is a good idea but holds no true power when it comes to science, you cannot solely rely on faith. However, by her expressing, faith is a fine invention, she does recognize that it is comforting to have faith and even though it might not physically amount to science, it is soothing to possess. In a time period when many people chose faith over fact Dickinson, caring for the people she wrote to, wanted it to be known that in order for real help you c ant remain caught up in prayer, you need to also seek professional help. We can see examples of her balancing these two elements in not only her words but within the format she writes in as well. Dickinson writes many of her poems in a hymn meter rhyme scheme, which is used in religious texts and songs such as Amazing Grace, and Christmas Carol. A model of this scheme is portrayed in her poem A Bird came down the Walk. By her following this traditional writing form but then altering the punctuation and capitalizations she does not completely conform to the straightforward rubric a hymn meter rhyme scheme is supposed to obtain. These modifications may seem insignificant but they speak loudly. In all of the works she applies this format to she is allowing herself to express her faith and truth. As Emily Dickinson ages she experiences detrimental events such as, the civil war, the death of her close friends and family, and also with her personal health problems pertaining to her eyesight and kidneys. These events altered her perception of faith and in her later life she became angry at the absence of God. She shows this transition in her work. After the start of her seclusion in 1862 she writes, Of Course†I prayed† And did God Care? In this work she expresses her fury with God, which in turn allows the reader to see she undoubting confesses her belief in faith.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Foreign Intervention On Democracy And Democratization

I. Introduction With regards to democratic theory, this literature review hopes to determine the effects of foreign intervention on democracy and democratization. It will focus on whether foreign interventions result in increased or decreased levels of democracy within target states. This conversation is important because it will hopefully determine whether interventions will be successful in the growth of democracy in the future or whether or not interventions are needed as a mechanism for democratization at all. II. Literature Review and Analysis Democracy has been in a leading position in the world since it began to gain popularity during the beginning of the 20th century (Fukuyama, 2006). Because it expanded through coercive means, it has meant that democracy continues to extend across the world. When communism began to decline, the West was able to extend democracy into several places both openly and discretely in order to encourage favorable political systems. The nature of the expansion of democracy has been criticized in terms of its legitimacy and viability in developing strong and sustainable governments and benefits to the people of the target states. Most scholars say that intervention cannot lead to a stable democracy, Pickering and Peceny for instance provide a bleak picture by portraying that in the 50 years from 1946-1996, 84% of states going through democratization were not through intervention. Enterline and Greig (2008), argue that 30% of attempts madeShow MoreRelatedThe Debate For Democracy During The Middle East1013 Words   |  5 PagesIn the debate for democracy in the middle east, many scholars suggest that Islamists are the main obstacle to overcome. By the last decade, Islamist parties and candidates have engaged in elections throughout in about eight Arab countries with almost modest results. Thus, Islamist may have a heavy degree of support among most of the consitunets who agree with anti-regime sentiments. 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In other places, authoritarian and other non-democratic regimes have existed and sustained rule without pushing for democracy. This raises the question: can democracy be exported to these countries? In present day, due to the f act that non-democraticRead MoreRegime Since The Republic Of Galafia2587 Words   |  11 Pagesreached out to the US to help bring freedom and democracy to the country through a Foreign Imposed Regime Change (FIRC). He believes that the US can successfully depose the countries authoritarian leader with minimal casualties and democracy will prevail as a result. There will be considerable obstacles that the National Security Council should take into account: the cost of an overt regime change, the history of the country and the democratization process. Cost of an Overt FIRC Although overt FIRC’s

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Legalizing Infant Euthanasia Free Essays

Since the evolution of man, infants have been born with severe illnesses. These infants may be able to survive due to advancing technologies, but are left with possible and probable defects. Many infants will die even though they are being treated because they are not equipped to sustain life. We will write a custom essay sample on Legalizing Infant Euthanasia or any similar topic only for you Order Now These circumstances have led to the debatable issue of infant euthanasia, or mercy killing, to allow these babies an end to their suffering, and die peacefully. While many people feel that euthanasia is murder, infant euthanasia should be legalized to spare terminally ill newborns of long, painful deaths, and to spare them of possible life-long disabilities. Euthanasia is said to be morally wrong by pro-life groups. They point out that infant’s may not be suffering while they are dying. They also emphasize that advances in pain management make it possible to relieve all or almost all pain. These people say that children should be saved at all costs, no matter how great the disability may be. They accentuate that the infants may be saved due to advancing technology, and that there are also therapy treatments for their possible disabilities. However, in considering whether or not to treat a newborn, the main goal should be to spare infants of long, painful deaths. Most experts believe that the primary answer to this issue is to follow what’s in the child’s best interests. If his mental and physical handicaps are overwhelming and it would be inhumane to prolong his life, then treatment should be withheld or withdrawn. After all, saving an infant for a life of suffering is hardly a humane and loving act. An infant was born with a skin condition similar to third-degree burns over almost all of its body for which there was no cure. The baby’s mother was young, unwed, and indigent. Providing basic nursing care caused tearing away of the skin. The infant could not be fed orally because of blistering in the mouth and throat. Any movement of the infant seemed to cause it pain. Even with intensive care its life expectancy, at most, was believed to be days. It would have been reasonable, merciful, and justifiable to have shortened the baby’s dying by an intended direct action chosen by the parent and the neonatologists. In cases relevantly like this, it is not immoral or morally wrong to intend and effect a merciful end to a life that, all things considered, will be meaningless to the one who lives it and an unwarranted burden for others to support. Among the women who work in the Stanford intensive care nursery, several said that if they were to have an extremely premature baby, they would not want it to be treated aggressively. One woman said that if she knew what was about to happen she would stay away from a hospital with a sophisticated intensive care unit. Others say they would make sure they were under the care of a doctor who would not press the extremes on survival. Many parents would make a similar choice but are not given the opportunity. It has been called a violation of God’s commandment not to kill. â€Å"†¦ in effect, the demand that physicians fight death at all costs is a demand that they play God. It is a demand that they conquer nature, thereby declaring themselves more powerful than God’s order. † Perhaps the ideal of conquest will be replaced by the ideal of living in agreement with nature. The most benign technology works in harmony with natural causes rather than intruding on them. The â€Å"Baby Doe† rule is a list of guidelines stating that a baby should be treated aggressively with very few exceptions. These exceptions to the rule are when â€Å"the infant is chronically and irreversibly comatose†, when the treatment would merely prolong dying, not be effective in ameliorating or correcting all of the infant’s life-threatening conditions, or otherwise be futile in terms of the survival of the infant†, and when â€Å"treatment would be virtually futile in terms of the survival of the infant and the treatment itself under such circumstances would be inhumane†¦ This policy rather loudly states that parents and professionals may not consider the salvageable infant’s life prospects no matter how harmful they may appear. A graphic illustration of the potential harm in the treatment of a handicapped infant is provided by Robert and Peggy Stinson’s account of their son Andrew who was born at a gestational age of 24 1/2 weeks and a weight of 800 grams. He was placed on a respirator against his parents’ wishes and without their consent, and remained dependent on the respirator for five months, until he was finally permitted to die. The seemingly endless list of Andrew’s afflictions, almost all of which were iatrogenic, reveals how disastrous this hospitalization was. Baby Andrew was, in effect saved by the respirator to die five ling, painful, and expensive months later of the respirator’s side effects. â€Å"†¦ the physicians who treated him violated an ancient and honored Hippocratic principle of professional ethics,`Primum non nocere’, First do no harm. As shown in the examples above, infants that are treated aggressively will die more slowly and painfully than if they were allowed a quick and peaceful death. By using aggressive treatment on severely ill infants, many are â€Å"saved† to live with life-long disabilities. To demand that physicians use intensive care technology beyond the point when it is likely to assist with a patient’s problems, as the Baby Doe regulations require, is to demand that they violate their professional commitment to do no harm. To argue that infants must be treated aggressively, no matter how great their disabilities, is to insist that the nursery become a torture chamber and that infants unequipped to live be deprived of their natural right to die. Helen Harrison, author of â€Å"The Premature Baby Book: a Parent’s Guide to Coping and Caring in the First Years†, wrote about how families are at the mercy of an accelerating life-support technology and of their physicians’ personal philosophies and motives concerning its use. She wrote after interviewing numerous parents and physicians in heartbreaking situations of delivery-room and nursery crises, â€Å"I sympathize with physicians’ concerns when parents request that there be no heroic measures. However, I sympathize infinitely more with families forced to live with the consequences of decisions made by others. Above all, I sympathize with infants saved for a lifetime of suffering. † The decisions involving the care of hopelessly ill and disabled newborns should be left to the traditional processes, to parents and physicians who do the best they can under difficult circumstances. B. D. Cohen, author of â€Å"Hard Choices† wrote, â€Å"Until such time as society is willing to pay the bill for truly humane institutions of twenty-four-hour home care for all such infants, to offer than death or living death, shouldn’t these decisions be left to those who will have to live with them? † There is a disease called Spina Bifida which affects between six thousand and eleven thousand newborns in the United States each year. The children are alive but require urgent surgery to prevent their handicap to intensify and bring about death. Paralysis, bladder and bowel incontinence, hydrocephalus or water on the brain are all part of the child’s future. Severe mental retardation, requiring total custodial care, is the likely fate of 10% of the 15% of the children. Some 10% of the children will die prior to reaching the first grade, in spite of aggressive medical care. These infants, incapable of making their own decisions, deserve to be spared the pain and suffering of such severe diseases and illnesses. Although some claim that euthanasia is the killing of a human, infant euthanasia should be legalized to spare severely ill babies of drawn-out, excruciating deaths, and to spare them of the possible defects from their illnesses. Infants continue to be born with such disabling illnesses daily. Many parents are left burdened throughout their lifetimes. They may not be prepared to provide the round-the-clock treatment that is needed. New York State should bring about peace by legalizing euthanasia, and end the suffering for all people intimately involved in situations described previously. How to cite Legalizing Infant Euthanasia, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Wealth Corrupts - an Analysis of the Great Gatsby free essay sample

As Henry Fielding once said, Money is the fruit of evil, as often as the root of it. (Henry Fielding). This is entirely true in the novel The Great Gatsby, where money is the leading factor in all that happens during the course of the story. The novel, The Great Gatsby, a very profound work of literature, extends on many levels and through various themes in order to provide readers with the central idea that wealth corrupts. Daisy Buchanan is the first character in the novel that has evidently been corrupted by wealth. Daisy, born and raised into an enormously wealthy family, never had to work for anything in life; anything she wanted was immediately given to her. Later in life she married Tom Buchanan also extravagantly wealthy who gave her a string of pearls valued at three hundred and fifty thousand dollars (76). This life of wealth inevitably led to a life of boredom for Daisy. We will write a custom essay sample on Wealth Corrupts an Analysis of the Great Gatsby or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Her life was so boring, in fact, that she audibly wonders Whatll [she] do with [herself] this afternoon†¦ and the day after that, and [for] the next thirty years (118). The feelings and the lives of others hold no influence over Daisy. Even her own daughter, Pammy, holds no meaning for her. She views her daughter as a mere toy, an object to show off to help boost her own image. When she hit and killed Myrtle Wilson, and when Gatsby died, she did show any emotion towards either of their deaths. Daisy, best illustrated as a careless person, smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into [her] money [and her] vast carelessness and let other people clean up the mess [she] had made (145). Daisy only cared about protecting herself, as people in her position are wont to do. Tom Buchanan, Daisys husband, has also been corrupted by the wealth maintained in his family. He is never content with what he has, and as a result of this he has numerous affairs; of course he gives no thought as to how Daisy might feel about this. During the timeline of the novel, he has an affair with Myrtle Wilson, but he does not actually care about her either. This is evident when Tom Buchanan broke her nose with his open hand (37). When Gatsby declares his love for Daisy, Tom breaks out into pure hypocrisy; bashing Gatsby for having an affair with his wife, tating that [He supposed] that the latest thing was to sit back and let Mr. Nobody from Nowhere make love to [his] wife (130). He then emphasizes that Gatsby is a nobody by revealing that Gatsby was a bootlegger and an inheritor of new money. He also stated that he loved Daisy and although Once in a while [he] may go off on a spree and make a fool of [himself], [he] always [comes] back, and in [his] heart [he loves] her all the time (131). All throughout the novel it is shown that Tom has the same problem with empathy that Daisy does, the problem of careless people. Toms total apathy towards other people is a perfect reflection of the careless lifestyle that he leads. Even all of the major secondary characters have fallen under the influence of money. The famous golfer, Jordan Baker accused of moving her golf ball to a better position in the semi-finals of a golf tournament wasnt able to endure being at a disadvantage and, given this unwillingness, [Nick supposed] she had begun dealing in subterfuges†¦ in order to keep that cool, insolent smile turned to the world (58). She lies to protect her image knowing that if she gets caught she can use her money to protect herself. Gatsbys friend and fellow bootlegger, Meyer Wolfsheim, [played] with the faith of fifty million people (73), fixing the 1918 World Series just to earn some quick cash. All of this goes to show that, although people may think that they have instinctive values and virtues, money can easily corrupt anyone. The miserable characters in The Great Gatsby were all victim to the tantalizing grasp that money and the power and carelessness that comes along with it—had on them.